2015 Participant Summaries

2019 Participant Summaries

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Study:                        
Symptoms, sites, and significance of Mycoplasma genitalium in men who have sex with men
 
Researchers:            
Read TRH, Murray GL, Danielewski J, Fairley CK, Doyle M, Worthington K, Su J, Mokany E, Tan LT, Lee D, Vodstrcil LA, Chow EPF, Garland SM, Chen MY, Bradshaw CS
 
Publication:              
Emerging Infectious Diseases 25(4): 719 – 727 doi: 10.3201/eid2504.181258
 
Summary:                 
We tested men with no symptoms who have sex with men (MSM) in Melbourne, Australia for Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) and also for antibiotic resistance to MG in urine and rectal swab samples. We compared the amount of MG in those with no symptoms to those MSM complaining of symptoms of rectal inflammation and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). In the MSM with no symptoms, 10% had MG and many of these MG infections were found to be resistant to some commonly used antibiotics for MG. Another 17% had gonorrhoea or chlamydia. MG was found in the rectal sample tests of 7% and 3% of urine samples. Similar numbers of MG were found in the rectal samples of MSM (6%) with symptoms of rectal inflammation. MG appears to not cause rectal inflammation. MG was found more often in MSM (8%) with NGU
 

 

Study:                                    
Clinical features and therapeutic response in women meeting criteria for presumptive treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease associated with Mycoplasma genitalium

Researchers:                        
Latimer RL, Read TRH, Vodstrcil LA, Goller JL, Ong JJ, Fairley CK, Hocking JS, Bradshaw CS
 
Publication:                          
Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2019; 46(2):73-79  doi:10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000924
 
Summary:                             
We looked at women with a likely diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease who had Mycoplasma genitalium as the only possible cause found. The women presented with increased lower abdominal tenderness and responded to standard antibiotic treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease. These results are very similar to women with chlamydia pelvic inflammatory disease.
 

 

Study:                                    
Translating mouthwash use for gonorrhoea prevention into a public health campaign: identifying current knowledge and research gaps
 
Researchers:                        
Chow EPF, Maddaford K, Trumpour S, Fairley CK
 
Publication:                          
Sexual Health 2019; 16(5):433-441 doi:10.1071/SH18237
 
Summary:                             
Gonorrhoea is on the rise in many western countries and several health organisations are concerned with the rising resistance of gonorrhoea to antibiotics. Throat gonorrhoea is common and may play an important role in gonorrhoea spread in men who have sex with men. Mouthwash has been proposed as a new way to prevent gonorrhoea and is being tested in a clinical trial. If it works, mouthwash use could be recommended in a public health campaign to prevent the spread of gonorrhoea. Many questions remain and still need to be answered before rolling it out as a community intervention
 

 

Study:                                    
Prevalence of human papillomavirus in teenage heterosexual males following the implementation of female and male school-based vaccination in Australia: 2014-2017 (Hyper Study)
 
Researchers:                        
Chow EPF, Tabrizi SN, Fairley CK, Wigan R, Machalek DA, Regan DG, Hocking JS, Garland SM, Cornall AM, Atchison S, Bradshaw CS, McNulty A, Owen L, Marshall L, Russell DB, Kaldor JM, Chen MY
 
Publication:                          
Vaccine 2019; 37(46): 6907- 6914  doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.09.052
 
Summary:                             
We compared human papilloma virus (HPV) types in penile samples between sexually-active teenage heterosexual males before and after the implementation of the school-based male HPV vaccination, which was added to the already in place school-based female vaccination program in Australia. Different types of HPV (prevented by the vaccine) among teenage heterosexual males was low both before and after the introduction of male vaccination compared to the period before the introduction of female vaccination. The low prevalence of HPV types (2.6%) among males prior to male vaccination is likely as a result of herd protection from the high coverage of females from the existing female-only HPV vaccination program.
 

 

Study:                                    
The role of stigma in the acceptance and disclosure of HIV among recently diagnosed men who have sex with men in Australia: a qualitative study
 
Researchers:                        
Bilardi JE, Hulme-Chambers A, Chen MY, Fairley CK, Huffam SS, Tomnay JE
 
Publication:                          
PLOS ONE 2019;14(11): e0224616 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0224616
 
Summary:                             
Fifteen MSM were interviewed by phone or face to face about their experience of their recent HIV diagnosis. Reactions to their HIV diagnosis ranged from shock, devastation and anger to a calm acceptance and feeling HIV would not have a significant impact on their lives. MSM who reported strong social support networks, or knew others with HIV, seemed better able to cope with and accept their diagnosis than those with fewer support networks. Due to prevailing stigma around HIV, most MSM were very selective about who they disclosed their status to, often only telling partners perceived to be at risk but no, or only few, close friends. Regardless of how well men accepted their diagnosis, most did not disclose their status to family members for fear of rejection or causing distress due to beliefs from outdated information about HIV.
 

 

Study:                                    
Sexual practices have a significant impact on the vaginal microbiota of women who have sex with women
 
Researchers:                        
Plummer EL*, Vodstrcil LA*, Fairley CK, Tabrizi SN, Garland SM, Law MG, Hocking JS, Fethers KA, Bulach DM, Murray GL, Bradshaw CS
 
Publication:                          
Scientific Report. 2019; 9:19749 (*joint first authors) doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-55929-7
 
Summary:                             
Women-who-have-sex-with-women (WSW) are at higher risk of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Self-collected vaginal swabs were used to tell the differences between the bacteria in the vagina of WSW using gene testing. Sex with a new partner increased the variety and amount of bacteria in the vagina of the women. Women reporting sex with a new partner were more likely than women reporting no new partner to have vaginal bacteria grouped as Gardnerella vaginalis or anaerobic BV-associated bacteria rather than the Lactobacillus crispatus group of bacteria.

Study:                                    
Recruiting people with HIV to an online self-management support randomised controlled trial: barriers and facilitators

 
Researchers:                        
Klassen K, Millard T, Stout J, McDonald K, Dobson S, Osborne R, Battersby M, Fairley CK, Kidd M, McMahon J, Elliott J
 
Publication:                          
Sexual Health 2019; 16(4):340-347 doi:10.1071/SH18130
 
 
Summary:                             
Recruitment of people with HIV (PWHIV) and their doctors to the HealthMap trial, a trial of an online self-management program. Most patients who were successfully recruited to HealthMap (80%) had heard about the study from their HIV doctor. Despite a large investment in online advertising, a previous relationship with the investigators and the doctors was important for doctor recruitment, and doctors themselves were the most important source of patient recruitment to the HealthMap trial. Clinic-based recruitment strategies remain a critical component of trial recruitment, despite expanding opportunities to engage with online communities.

Study:                                    
The sites in the oropharynx reached y different methods of using mouthwash: clinical implication for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea prevention (Omega Study)

 
Researchers:                        
Maddaford K, Fairley CK, Trumpour S, Chung M, Chow EPF
 
Publication:                          
Sexually Transmitted Infections 2019 doi:10.1136/sextrans-2019-054158
 
Summary:                             
Identifying the best way to use mouthwash directly to the tonsils and the back of the throat, is important because these are the two key areas where gonorrhoea is found in the in the mouth. New evidence has suggested that the throat is an important site for spreading gonorrhoea and that kissing may be a risk for getting gonorrhoea. If mouthwash is shown to work, then our findings in this study show that oral spray used 15 times twice a day is a good way to prevent getting throat gonorrhoea compared to rinsing and gargling.

 

Study:                                    
Resistance-guided antimicrobial therapy using doxycycline-moxifloxacin and doxycycline-2.5g azithromycin for the treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium infection: efficacy and tolerability
 
Researchers:                        
Durukan D, Read TRH, Murray G, Doyle M, Chow EPF, Vodstrcil LA, Fairley CK, Aguirre I, Mokany E, Tan LY, Chen MY, Bradshaw CS
 
Publication:                          
Clinical Infectious Diseases 2019 doi:10.1093/cid/ciz1031
 
Summary:                             
Resistance to antibiotics used for Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) infection is increasing. Treatment is required that is guided by the amount of resistance found to commonly used antibiotics for MG infections. We recently reported that resistance-guided therapy (RGT) using doxycycline followed by sitafloxacin or higher dose azithromycin cured more than 90% of MG infections. Using doxycycline-moxifloxacin, and doxyxycline with higher dose of azithromycin also cured more than 90% of infections.

Study:

Combined oral contraceptive pill-exposure alone does not reduce the risk of bacterial vaginosis recurrence in a pilot randomised controlled trial


Researchers:

Vodstrcil LA, Plummer E, Fairley CK, Tachedjian G, Law MG, Hocking JS, Worthington K, Grant M, Okoko N, Bradshaw CS


Publication:

Scientific Reports 2019; 9(1):3555. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-39879-8


Summary:

A study looked at whether using a hormonal contraceptive pill could lower the risk of getting bacterial vaginosis (BV). Ninety-five women with symptoms of BV were prescribed antibiotics together with an oral contraceptive pill or a non-hormonal contraceptive. The women were followed up every month for six-months or until their BV returned. The hormonal contraceptive pill did not improve a cure of BV but found returning BV was found more often in women with an ongoing untreated regular sexual partner and had a previous history of BV.


 

Study:

Incidence, clearance, and persistence of anal human papillomavirus in men who have sex with men living with human immunodeficiency virus: implications for human papillomavirus vaccination

 

Researchers:

Ong JJ, Walker S, Grulich A, Hoy J, Read TRH, Bradshaw CS, Chen MY, Garland SM, Cornall A, Hillman R, Templeton DJ, Hocking J, Eu B, Tee BK, Chow EPF, Fairley CK

 

Publication:

Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2019; 46(4):229-233. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000958

 

Summary:

Men who have sex with men living with human immunodeficiency virus have a high risk of getting anal cancer. Anal swabs at their first visit and at their 2 year follow up visit were tested for anal HPV and if found the HPV was typed. Of 255 men, 74% had at least 1 HPV type at their first visit, and 55% had at least 1 high risk to cancer HPV type. Of the men who had any type of anal HPV, most had multiple HPV types at their first visit. After 2 years of follow-up, 58% had at least 1 high-risk HPV type and 28% had 2 high risk HPV types. If vaccination was received at the first visit, we assume that HPV-negative men would receive vaccine protection, and this could prevent high risk type HPV infection.

 



Study:

Association of HIV preexposure prophylaxis with incidence of sexually transmitted infections among individuals at high risk of HIV infection

 

Researchers:

Traeger MW, Cornelisse VJ, Asselin J, Price B, Roth NJ, Willcox J, Tee BK, Fairley CK, Chang CC, Armishaw J, Vujovic O, Penn M, Cundil P, Forgan-Smith G. Gall J, Pickett C, Lal L, Mak A, Spelman TD, Nguyen L, Murphy DA, Ryan KE, El-Hayek C, West M, Ruth M, Batrouney C, Lockwood JT, Hoy JF, Hellard ME, Stoové MA, Wright EJ

 

Publication:

JAMA 2019; 321(14): 1380-1390. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.2947

 

Summary:

A study of mostly gay and bisexual men who received daily HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce being infected with HIV found that a small group of 25% were more likely to have STIs. The results found that there was an increase in STIs in some after taking PrEP compared to before taking PrEP. These findings highlight the importance of frequent STI testing among gay and bisexual men using PrEP.


 

Study:

Strategies used by gay male HIV serodiscordant couples to reduce the risk of HIV transmission from anal intercourse in three countries

 

Researchers:

Bavinton BR, Prestage G, Jin J, Phanuphak N, Grinsztejn B, Fairley CK, Baker D, Hoy, J, Templeton D, Tee BK, Kelleher A, Grulich AE

 

Publication:

Journal of the International AIDS Society 2019; 22(4):e25277 doi:10.1002/jia2.25277

 

Summary:

Opposites Attract was a study of male HIV serodiscordant couples in Australia, Brazil and Thailand, from May 2014 (Australia) or May 2016 (Brazil/Thailand) to December 2016. The study recruited 358 serodiscordant couples. Many men in the couples enrolled in our study relied on undetectable viral load to reduce transmission of HIV, along with other strategies such as condom use, PrEP, strategic positioning and withdrawal. Only a very small proportion of anal intercourse acts within the serodiscordant couples in the study were not protected by any strategy. Variation between countries may reflect differences in access to HIV treatment, education, knowledge and attitudes. Despite the perception of male serodiscordant couples as very high risk, these data suggest that for the most part, HIV transmission risk in these couples was low. Studies have now confirmed that transmission risk is low when HIV-positive partners have undetectable viral load.

 


 

Study:

Co-circulation of multidrug-resistant Shigella among men who have sex with men, Australia

 

Researchers:

Ingle DJ, Easton M, Seemann T, Kwong JC, Stephens N, Carter GP, Da Silva AG, Adamopoulos J, Baines SL, Holt KE, Chow EPF, Fairley CK, Chen MY, Kirk M, Howden BP, Williamson DA

 

Publication:

Clinical Infectious Diseases 2019 doi:10.1093/cid/ciz005

 

Summary:

In urban Australia, infection with Shigella bacteria is usually found in returning travelers from regions where Shigella are often found or in men who have sex with men (MSM). We describe data on sexual exposure and travel and the spread of multidrug-resistant Shigella. All positive laboratory tested Shigella in Victoria, Australia were included from 1 January 2016 through 31 March 2018. The study found that multidrug -resistant Shigella bacteria acquired in Victoria or by international travel are also found across many continents and are often found in MSM. The data highlights the ongoing public health threat posed by multidrug-resistant Shigella bacteria, both in Australia and globally.

 


 

Study:

Kissing may be an important and neglected risk factor for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea: a cross-section study in men who have sex with men

 

Researchers:

Chow EPF, Cornelisse VJ, Williamson DA, Priest D, Hocking JS, Bradshaw CS, Read TRH, Chen MY, Howden BP, Fairley CK

 

Publication:

Sexually Transmitted Infections 2019; 0:1–6. doi:10.1136/sextrans-2018-053896

 

Summary:

Men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a public sexual health centre in Melbourne, Australia, between March 2016 and February 2017 were invited to participate in a brief survey that linked data on their number of male partners in the last 3 months to if they only kissed their partner(s)(ie, no sex including no oral and/or anal sex), or if they only had sex (ie, any sex without kissing), and if they kissed during sex (ie, kissing with any sex). A total of 3677 men completed the survey and 6% had oropharyngeal gonorrhoea. Kissing-only and kissing-with-sex was shown to contribute to the spread of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea, but sex-only did not. The link was higher in MSM with 4 partners or more. These data suggest that kissing may contribute to the spread of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea in MSM, irrespective of whether sex also occurs.

 


Study:

SOLITAIRE-U: A Phase 3 randomized trial comparing single dose oral Solithromycin versus single dose intramuscular ceftriaxone plus single dose oral azithromycin for treatment of uncomplicated genital gonorrhoea

 

Researchers:

Chen MY, McNulty A, Avery A, Whiley D, Tabrizi SN, Hardy D, Das AF, Nenninger A, Fairley CK, Hocking JS, Bradshaw CS, Donovan B, Howden BP, Oldach D

 

Publication:

The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2019; June 10, 2019, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/. S1473-3099(19)30116-1

 

Summary:

A single 1000mg dose of solithromycin was not a suitable first line treatment for gonorrhoea compared with standard therapy. Would a slightly longer dose have improved the cure rate? We don’t know. This would need to be studied in another trial and gastrointestinal side effects were already high with the 1000mg dose. They weren’t uncommon with azithromycin either. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02210325.

 


Study:

Oropharyngeal gonorrhoea in the absence of urogenital gonorrhoea in a sexual network of males and females, Australia, 2018

 

Researchers:

Cornelisse VJ, Chow EPF, Bradshaw CS, Williamson DA, Fairley CK

 

Publication:

Emerging Infectious Diseases 2019, 25(7)1373-1376 doi:10.3201/eid2507.181561

 

Summary:

This study describes a sexual network consisting of 1 nonbinary-gendered participant and 2 male and 4 female participants in Australia, 2018. Six of 7 participants had oropharyngeal gonorrhoea in the absence of urogenital gonorrhoea. This observation supports a new pattern of gonorrhoea transmission in which oropharyngeal gonorrhoea can be transmitted through tongue kissing.

 

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