2015 Participant Summaries

2019 Participant Summaries

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Study:

Combined oral contraceptive pill-exposure alone does not reduce the risk of bacterial vaginosis recurrence in a pilot randomised controlled trial

Researchers:

Vodstrcil LA, Plummer E, Fairley CK, Tachedjian G, Law MG, Hocking JS, Worthington K, Grant M, Okoko N, Bradshaw CS

Publication:

Scientific Reports 2019; 9(1):3555. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-39879-8

Summary:

A study looked at whether using a hormonal contraceptive pill could lower the risk of getting bacterial vaginosis (BV). Ninety-five women with symptoms of BV were prescribed antibiotics together with an oral contraceptive pill or a non-hormonal contraceptive. The women were followed up every month for six-months or until their BV returned. The hormonal contraceptive pill did not improve a cure of BV but found returning BV was found more often in women with an ongoing untreated regular sexual partner and had a previous history of BV.


Study:

Incidence, clearance, and persistence of anal human papillomavirus in men who have sex with men living with human immunodeficiency virus: implications for human papillomavirus vaccination

Researchers:

Ong JJ, Walker S, Grulich A, Hoy J, Read TRH, Bradshaw CS, Chen MY, Garland SM, Cornall A, Hillman R, Templeton DJ, Hocking J, Eu B, Tee BK, Chow EPF, Fairley CK

Publication:

Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2019; 46(4):229-233. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000958

Summary:

Men who have sex with men living with human immunodeficiency virus have a high risk of getting anal cancer. Anal swabs at their first visit and at their 2 year follow up visit were tested for anal HPV and if found the HPV was typed. Of 255 men, 74% had at least 1 HPV type at their first visit, and 55% had at least 1 high risk to cancer HPV type. Of the men who had any type of anal HPV, most had multiple HPV types at their first visit. After 2 years of follow-up, 58% had at least 1 high-risk HPV type and 28% had 2 high risk HPV types. If vaccination was received at the first visit, we assume that HPV-negative men would receive vaccine protection, and this could prevent high risk type HPV infection.



Study:

Association of HIV preexposure prophylaxis with incidence of sexually transmitted infections among individuals at high risk of HIV infection

Researchers:

Traeger MW, Cornelisse VJ, Asselin J, Price B, Roth NJ, Willcox J, Tee BK, Fairley CK, Chang CC, Armishaw J, Vujovic O, Penn M, Cundil P, Forgan-Smith G. Gall J, Pickett C, Lal L, Mak A, Spelman TD, Nguyen L, Murphy DA, Ryan KE, El-Hayek C, West M, Ruth M, Batrouney C, Lockwood JT, Hoy JF, Hellard ME, Stoové MA, Wright EJ

Publication:

JAMA 2019; 321(14): 1380-1390. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.2947

Summary:

A study of mostly gay and bisexual men who received daily HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce being infected with HIV found that a small group of 25% were more likely to have STIs. The results found that there was an increase in STIs in some after taking PrEP compared to before taking PrEP. These findings highlight the importance of frequent STI testing among gay and bisexual men using PrEP.


Study:

Strategies used by gay male HIV serodiscordant couples to reduce the risk of HIV transmission from anal intercourse in three countries

Researchers:

Bavinton BR, Prestage G, Jin J, Phanuphak N, Grinsztejn B, Fairley CK, Baker D, Hoy, J, Templeton D, Tee BK, Kelleher A, Grulich AE

Publication:

Journal of the International AIDS Society 2019; 22(4):e25277 doi:10.1002/jia2.25277

Summary:

Opposites Attract was a study of male HIV serodiscordant couples in Australia, Brazil and Thailand, from May 2014 (Australia) or May 2016 (Brazil/Thailand) to December 2016. The study recruited 358 serodiscordant couples. Many men in the couples enrolled in our study relied on undetectable viral load to reduce transmission of HIV, along with other strategies such as condom use, PrEP, strategic positioning and withdrawal. Only a very small proportion of anal intercourse acts within the serodiscordant couples in the study were not protected by any strategy. Variation between countries may reflect differences in access to HIV treatment, education, knowledge and attitudes. Despite the perception of male serodiscordant couples as very high risk, these data suggest that for the most part, HIV transmission risk in these couples was low. Studies have now confirmed that transmission risk is low when HIV-positive partners have undetectable viral load.


Study:

Co-circulation of multidrug-resistant Shigella among men who have sex with men, Australia

Researchers:

Ingle DJ, Easton M, Seemann T, Kwong JC, Stephens N, Carter GP, Da Silva AG, Adamopoulos J, Baines SL, Holt KE, Chow EPF, Fairley CK, Chen MY, Kirk M, Howden BP, Williamson DA

Publication:

Clinical Infectious Diseases 2019 doi:10.1093/cid/ciz005

Summary:

In urban Australia, infection with Shigella bacteria is usually found in returning travelers from regions where Shigella are often found or in men who have sex with men (MSM). We describe data on sexual exposure and travel and the spread of multidrug-resistant Shigella. All positive laboratory tested Shigella in Victoria, Australia were included from 1 January 2016 through 31 March 2018. The study found that multidrug -resistant Shigella bacteria acquired in Victoria or by international travel are also found across many continents and are often found in MSM. The data highlights the ongoing public health threat posed by multidrug-resistant Shigella bacteria, both in Australia and globally.


Study:

Kissing may be an important and neglected risk factor for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea: a cross-section study in men who have sex with men

Researchers:

Chow EPF, Cornelisse VJ, Williamson DA, Priest D, Hocking JS, Bradshaw CS, Read TRH, Chen MY, Howden BP, Fairley CK

Publication:

Sexually Transmitted Infections 2019; 0:1–6. doi:10.1136/sextrans-2018-053896

Summary:

Men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a public sexual health centre in Melbourne, Australia, between March 2016 and February 2017 were invited to participate in a brief survey that linked data on their number of male partners in the last 3 months to if they only kissed their partner(s)(ie, no sex including no oral and/or anal sex), or if they only had sex (ie, any sex without kissing), and if they kissed during sex (ie, kissing with any sex). A total of 3677 men completed the survey and 6% had oropharyngeal gonorrhoea. Kissing-only and kissing-with-sex was shown to contribute to the spread of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea, but sex-only did not. The link was higher in MSM with 4 partners or more. These data suggest that kissing may contribute to the spread of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea in MSM, irrespective of whether sex also occurs.


Study:

SOLITAIRE-U: A Phase 3 randomized trial comparing single dose oral Solithromycin versus single dose intramuscular ceftriaxone plus single dose oral azithromycin for treatment of uncomplicated genital gonorrhoea

Researchers:

Chen MY, McNulty A, Avery A, Whiley D, Tabrizi SN, Hardy D, Das AF, Nenninger A, Fairley CK, Hocking JS, Bradshaw CS, Donovan B, Howden BP, Oldach D

Publication:

The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2019; June 10, 2019, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/. S1473-3099(19)30116-1

Summary:

A single 1000mg dose of solithromycin was not a suitable first line treatment for gonorrhoea compared with standard therapy. Would a slightly longer dose have improved the cure rate? We don’t know. This would need to be studied in another trial and gastrointestinal side effects were already high with the 1000mg dose. They weren’t uncommon with azithromycin either. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02210325.


Study:

Oropharyngeal gonorrhoea in the absence of urogenital gonorrhoea in a sexual network of males and females, Australia, 2018

Researchers:

Cornelisse VJ, Chow EPF, Bradshaw CS, Williamson DA, Fairley CK

Publication:

Emerging Infectious Diseases 2019, 25(7)1373-1376 doi:10.3201/eid2507.181561

Summary:

This study describes a sexual network consisting of 1 nonbinary-gendered participant and 2 male and 4 female participants in Australia, 2018. Six of 7 participants had oropharyngeal gonorrhoea in the absence of urogenital gonorrhoea. This observation supports a new pattern of gonorrhoea transmission in which oropharyngeal gonorrhoea can be transmitted through tongue kissing.